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God’s Covenant Names; Christ’s Names in Old Testament.

What are the redemptive names of Christ and what are the covenant names of God the Father in the Old Testament?

The Hebrew Name ‘Immanuw’el’, is written in Isaiah 7 and 8, and is also confirmed in the New Testament in Matthew 1:23 with the Greek ‘Emmanuel'(Emmanouel). Immanuel means ‘with us is God’, showing Jehovah’s role of Savior, incarnate in flesh, as Jesus Christ, our Mediator for us to Jehovah (1 Tim.2:5). Although ‘Emmanuel’ as a word, does not show the redemptive meaning directly, it does indirectly, as this Name links back to God calling Himself our Saviour in the Old Testament Scripture. That’s why the Greek form ‘Emmanuel’ is the same as the Hebrew ‘Immanuel’, an original Hebrew word. This means we can’t separate the Old Testament passages which describe Immanuel, from the Gospel Books of the New Testament of ‘Emmanuel’, or Christ Jesus. It is an excellent proof from God’s Word that Jesus Christ IS GOD made flesh, and not just a prophet such as Moses, etc. (see John 1).
The “I AM” within “I AM The LORD thy GOD” is given in Isaiah 43:3 and is in Covenant relation to His People, then the Title “The Holy One of Israel” as in contrast to false gods, and then “thy Saviour” which is ‘Yasha‘, translated as ‘Saviour’. All three Titles given in one verse. In John 8:58 our Lord and Savior said “…Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I AM.” This showed again Christ as God’s Role as Saviour as written. Isaiah 45 is emphatic that there is no other Saviour than The God of Israel. Christ Jesus is God in the Role of Saviour, Incarnate in flesh, Emmanuel ‘God with us’ (Matt.1:23). Even in Luke 1:47 Mary, the mother of Christ, calls God her Saviour, without naming Jesus, for He was not made flesh just yet.
Isaiah 49:26 and 60:16, God calls Himself our ‘Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob’. That means kinsman redeemer, as One of kin, who avenges, revenges, ransoms, etc., for us. We belong to Him. We are family. GOD did create us all, and we all are His children. Naturally then, only those who wish to be part of His family can claim that relationship to Him.
The word ‘salvation’ in the Old Testament Hebrew is ‘yeshuw’ah’; ‘yesha’, ‘teshuw’ah’. The name Joshua (Yehowshuwa in Hebrew) is the equivalent Iesous (Jesus) in Greek, and means ‘Jehovah’s Saviour’.
Melchizedek of Genesis 14 and Psalms 110:4 is our Saviour and Lord, as confirmed in Hebrews Chapters 5 through 7. Melchizedek is from two Hebrew words, Melek (Malkiy) in Hebrew means ‘king‘, and ‘tsedeq‘ means ‘the right, moral, legal, natural’, and is written as ‘King of Righteousness‘ in the Book of Hebrews. Thus also, the title of King of Salem, and Prince of Salem, are also definitions of Melchizedek.
The words ‘Messiah‘ and ‘Christ‘ both mean Anointed, as Messiah is the Hebrew form, and Christ is the Greek form. Remember the commands for Christians to anoint themselves, and the anointing of prophets, kings, and priests.
Isaiah 9:6 gives more Titles of God’s Role as Saviour through Jesus Christ. Our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ is referred to there as ‘Counsellor, Wonderful, The Mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace‘. Christ is called The ‘Branch’ in Isaiah 11:1, in relation to His birth through the seed of David. Therefore, He is also called the ‘son of David’ in relation to the meaning of Eve called ‘the mother of all living’, meaning through her womb, Christ would be born in flesh for the Mission as Saviour for all who accept Him, and through grace receive everlasting Life.
As far as ‘redemptive names of Christ’, the above all show Christ’s relationship as God’s Saviour for us. Those verses and Names also show that Christ is God, especially as in Isaiah 9:6. There are many, many, more references to Christ in the Old Testament which just use pronouns, such as ‘he’, not declaring one of the specific Divine Titles. Only by true study through the Books of The Old Testament will it be discovered when Christ is being talked about. The context of the Chapter will reveal Christ in those Scriptures of the Old Testament concerning His Mission as Savior and KING OF KINGS. Isaiah 11 is one example. Zech.9:9-10 give both first and second Advents of Christ, as does Isa.61:2, yet His Name is not mentioned. Do you think our Father caused that to proove us with, to see if we would listen to Him and study His Word for ourselves? I don’t have any doubts that He did. So all the arguments about the Trinity, etc., among many Christians who are unlearned in God’s Word, especially in the Old Testament, with the Manuscripts, is all for naught. Just what is written here concerning the various Names of God in different relationships should put to rest many of those arguments. Appendix 4 of The Companion Bible gives all the Covenant Titles for God in relation to His People. Below is some of the info from Bullinger’s Companion Bible, Ap.4, pp.6-7:

1. Jehovah – Elohim in Covenant relation to those He created.
Jehovah – Jireh = Jehovah will see, or provide. Gen.22:14.
Jehovah – Ropheka = Jehovah that healeth thee. Ex.15.:26.
Jehovah – Nissi = Jehovah my banner. Ex.17:15.
Jehovah – Mekaddishkem = Jehovah that doth sanctify you. Ex.31:13; Lev.20:8; 21:8; 22:32; Ezek.20:12.

Jehovah – Shalom = Jehovah [send] peace. Judg.6:24.
Jehovah – Zebaoth = Jehovah of hosts. 1 Sam. 1:3 and frequently. Jehovah – Zidkenu = Jehovah our Righteousness. Jer.23:6; 33:16. Jehovah – Shammah = Jehovah is there. Ezek.48:35.
Jehovah – Elyon = Jehovah most High. Ps.7:17; 47:2; 97:9.
Jehovah – Ro’i = Jehovah my Shepherd. Ps.23:1. 2.
JAH = Jehovah as having BECOME our Salvation (Ex.15.2). Occurs 49 times.
3. SHADDAI – Translated “Almighty”, and is indicated by small capital letters. It is God (“El”), not as the source of strength, but of ‘grace’; not as Creator, but as the ‘Giver’. Shaddai is the ‘All-bountiful’. This title does not refer to His creative power, but to His power to supply all the needs of His people. Its first occurrence is in Gen.17:1, and is used to show Abraham that He Who called him out to walk alone before Him could supply all his need. Even so it is the title used in 2 Cor.6:18, where we are called to “come out” in separation from the world. It is always used in connection with “El”.
4. ELYON – first occurs in Gen.14:8 with ‘El’, and is rendered “the most high (God)”. It is El and Elohim, not as the powerful Creator, but as “the possessor of heaven and earth.” Hence the name is associated with Christ as the Son of “the Highest” (Luke 1:35). It is ‘Elyon’, as possessor of the earth, Who divides the nations “their inheritance”. In Ps.83:18, He is “over all the earth”. The title occurs 36 times (6 x 6, or 6 to the 2nd power). Elyon is the Dispenser of God’s blessing in the earth; the blessings proceeding from a Priest Who is a King upon His Throne (compare Gen.14:18-22 with Zech.6:13; 14:9).

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